Penn State College of Medicine is committed to offering CME programs that promote improvements or quality in health care and are developed free of the control of commercial interests. Reasonable efforts have been taken to ensure that our programs are balanced, independent, objective, scientific, and in compliance with regulatory requirements. Faculty and course directors have disclosed all relevant financial relationships with commercial companies, and Penn State has a process in place to resolve any conflict of interest. Disclosure of a relationship is not intended to suggest or condone bias, but is made to provide participants with information that might be of potential importance to their evaluation of this educational activity.
Penn State College of Medicine staff and faculty involved in the development and review of this activity have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
The following contributors disclose:
George Arnaoutakis, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Boston Medical, Inc.
Faisal Bakaeen, MD
Royalties/Patents:  Jace Medical
Thomas Beaver, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Gore, Cryolife
Bryan Burt, MD
Research Grant:  AstraZeneca, Momotaro-Gene Inc.
Stock Ownership:  Bayou Surgical
Andrew Chang, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Biostage
Jonathan Chen, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medtronic, Gore
Danny Chu, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Japanese Organization for Medical Device Development, Inc., The Osler Institute
Employment Affiliation:  Wolters Kluwer Health
Joseph Cleveland Jr., MD
Research Grant:  Abbott Medical
Robbin Cohen, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medtronic
Speakers Bureau:  Edwards Heart Valve, Medtronic
David Cooper, MD
Speakers Bureau:  AstraZeneca, Mallinckrodt, Medtronic, Synagis
Thomas D’Amico, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Scanlan Instruments
Daniel Engelman, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Astute Medical, Edwards Lifesciences, Zimmer Biomet
Mark Ferguson, MD
Employment Affiliation:  Society of Thoracic Surgeons
Royalties/Patents:  Elsevier, Springer
Sidharta Gangadharan, MD
Research Grant:  On Target Laboratories
T. Sloane Guy, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Verb Surgical/Ethicon, Edwards Lifesciences, Medtronic, Intuitive Surgical
Wayne Hofstetter, MD
Research Grant:  Johnson & Johnson
Consultant/Advisor:  NeuWave
Speakers Bureau:  Boston Scientific
James Isbell, MD
Stock Ownership:  LumaCyte, LLC
Tsuyoshi Kaneko, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Edwards Lifesciences, Medtronic, Abbott, Baylis Medical
Anthony Kim, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medtronic, Roche Genentech
Min Kim, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Intuitive Surgical, Medtronic, Boston Scientific, Veran
Jules Lin, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Intuitive Surgical
S. Chris Malaisrie, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Edwards Lifesciences, Medtronic, Cryolife
Speakers Bureau:  Terumo, Baxter
M. Blair Marshall, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Ethicon:  Johnson & Johnson
John Mayer, Jr., MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medtronic,
Stock Ownership:  Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Inc., Eli Lilly
HelenMari Merritt-Genore, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Atricure
Robert Merrit, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Intuitive Surgical
Daniel Miller, MD
Speakers Bureau:  Acute Innovations, Inc.
Consultant/Advisor:  Ethicon, Inc.
John Mitchell, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medtronic
Nahush Mokadam, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medtronic, Abbott, SynCardia
Gabe Owens, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  HistoSonics, Inc.
Jay Pal, MD
Research Grant:  Medtronic
Thomas Reece, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Terumo, Gore, McKesson
Edward Sako, MD
Stock Ownership:  Medtronic
Joseph Shrager, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Carefusion/Becton Dickinson
Research Grant:  Varian, Inc.
Stock Ownership:  Chest Innovations, Inc.
Brendon Stiles, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  AstraZeneca, Medtronic, Lung Cancer Research Foundation
Speakers Bureau:  AstraZeneca, Medtronic
Employment Affiliation:  Pfizer, PPI (spouse)
Stock Ownership:  PPI (spouse)
Thoralf Sundt, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medpace
Betty Tong, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medtronic
Michael Weyant, MD
Consultant/Advisor:  Medtronic
All other contributors/question writers involved in the development of this activity have reported no financial relationship to disclose.